Agricultural production, most of it from subsistence farming, accounts for about one-third of the country’s gross domestic product. What are the islands of the Maldives made of? Papua New Guinea. Joseph Greenberg proposed that the Andamanese languages (or at least the Great Andamanese languages) off the coast of Burma are related to the Papuan or West Papuan languages. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. In many, for example, the words for numbers However, he considered this not evidence of a connection between (Great) Andamanese and Trans–New Guinea, but of a substratum from an earlier migration to New Guinea from the west. Austronesian speakers generally inhabit the coastal regions and offshore islands, including the Trobriands and Buka. With a share of around 78%, it is most widespread in Papua New Guinea. In 2006, the Prime Minister of the country declared that there are 832 living languages in Papua New Guinea. Papuan speakers, who constitute the great majority of the population, live mainly in the interior. Many of these languages are spoken only by a very small number of … (Ross argues that open-class pronoun systems, where borrowings are common, are found in hierarchical cultures such as those of Southeast Asia and Japan, where pronouns indicate details of relationship and social status rather than simply being grammatical pro-forms as they are in the more egalitarian New Guinea societies.). 304 Papua New Guinea is a country of a little more than three million inhabitants in which it is said that 750 distinct languages are spoken. [22], Cover term for several language families spoken in New Guinea and neighboring areas, Papuan families proposed by Wurm (1975) (with approximate numbers of languages), Papuan families other than TNG accepted by Foley (2003), Papuan families proposed by Wichmann (2013), Papuan families proposed by Palmer (2018). How many languages do they speak in Papua New Guinea? The north coast and northeastern archipelagoes are generally well-populated, despite the hazards of volcanic eruptions, frequent earth tremors, and, rarely, tsunamis. The approximately 550 non-Austronesian languages have small speech communities, the largest being the Engan, Melpa, and Kuman speakers in the Highlands, each with more than 100,000 speakers. All other Papuan languages are right-headed. The Reef Islands – Santa Cruz languages of Wurm's East Papuan phylum were a potential 24th family, but subsequent work has shown them to be highly divergent Austronesian languages as well. There are at least 7,102 known languages still spoken in the world today. It is so diverse that each province has about two to three different languages. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the birth rate greatly exceeded the world average, while the death rate was moderately high and falling. It is a multilingual nation with over 840 languages spoken, with twelve of them lacking many speakers. However, it is spoken by about 100,000 people or 1-2% of the population. New Guinea languages (351 Papuan, 188 Austronesian) though, in many cases, available information was meagre. 1. English is also the main language in the education system. Rapid population growth has created difficulties in providing basic health and education services. English is the main language of government and commerce. (you alright) I’m fine - mi orait tasolHow much is that? In addition to the official languages, there are more than 800 distinct indigenous languages belonging to two radically different language groups—Austronesian, to which the local languages classified as Melanesian belong, and non-Austronesian, or Papuan. What is the world’s largest archipelago? There are some 200 related Austronesian languages. Approximately another one-fifth are Roman Catholics. In general, the Central–Eastern Malayo-Polynesian languages are marked by a significant historical Papuan influence, lexically, grammatically, and phonologically, and this is responsible for much of the diversity of the Austronesian language family. Tiny Papua New Guinea is all of 462,840 square kilometres in size, about as big as the state of California. In the archipelagoes of the north and northeast, yams, taro, and bananas are grown as staple foods. [1] It is a strictly geographical grouping, and does not imply a genetic relationship. Papua New Guinea’s rate of population growth tends to be high and life expectancy somewhat low, relative to other countries in the region. To the east, Terei (27,000 reported 2003) and Naasioi (20,000 reported 2007) are spoken on Bougainville. [12] A total of 80 independent groups are recognized. [5], Two of Wurm's isolates have since been linked as the. With an average of only 7,000 speakers per language, Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth except Vanuatu. Papua New Guinea occupies the eastern part of the world's second largest island and is prey to volcanic activity, earthquakes and tidal waves. Papua New Guinea is the most linguistically diverse place on our planet. - yu orait ? Pidgin English and Hiri Motu are more commonly used (an estimated 742 other languages and dialects are also spoken). Foley (1986) divides Papuan languages into over sixty small language families, plus a number of isolates. Joseph Greenberg proposed an Indo-Pacific phylum containing the (Northern) Andamanese languages, all Papuan languages, and the Tasmanian languages, but not the Australian Aboriginal languages. 2013. It is distinct from the Trans–New Guinea phylum of the classifications below. Port Moresby and Lae, on the Huon Gulf, are the largest cities. [8] Some of the groups could turn out to be related to each other, but Wichmann (2013) lists them as separate groups pending further research. The approximately 550 non-Austronesian languages have small speech communities, the largest being the Engan, Melpa, and Kuman speakers in the Highlands, each with more than 100,000 speakers. Unemployment and underemployment have exacerbated the problems of poverty, crime, and ethnic tensions, especially in urban areas. The various high-level families may represent distinct migrations into New Guinea, presumably from the west. According to Ross (see below), the main problem with Wurm's classification is that he did not take contact-induced change into account. [20] He believed that it was naïve to expect to find a single Papuan or Australian language family when New Guinea and Australia had been a single landmass for most of their human history, having been separated by the Torres Strait only 8000 years ago, and that a deep reconstruction would likely include languages from both. Similarly, several groups that do have substantial basic vocabulary in common with Trans–New Guinea languages are excluded from the phylum because they do not resemble it grammatically. In the slightly more elevated areas away from the main rivers there are extensive areas of poor grassland with a high water table that are used for swidden cultivation and hunting. They are Tok Pisin, English, Hiri Motu, and Papua New Guinean Sign Language. English is the first. These languages all have SVO word order, with the exception of the language isolate Kuot, which has VSO word order. The capital of Papua New Guinea is Port Moresby. Müller, André, Viveka Velupillai, Søren Wichmann, Cecil H. Brown, Eric W. Holman, Sebastian Sauppe, Pamela Brown, Harald Hammarström, Oleg Belyaev, Johann-Mattis List, Dik Bakker, Dmitri Egorov, Matthias Urban, Robert Mailhammer, Matthew S. Dryer, Evgenia Korovina, David Beck, Helen Geyer, Pattie Epps, Anthony Grant, and Pilar Valenzuela. Forest exploitation, dominated by foreign-owned logging companies, has been extensive, particularly along the north coast, in parts of the southern region, and on New Britain and New Ireland. It has been suggested that these may have originally been non-Austronesian languages that have borrowed nearly all of their vocabulary from neighboring Austronesian languages, but no connection with the Papuan languages of Timor has been found. The poor state of documentation of Papuan languages restricts this approach largely to pronouns. However, Dixon later abandoned his proto-Australian proposal,[21] and Foley's ideas need to be re-evaluated in light of recent research. In the colonial era copra was the premier crop in lowland areas, but now only small amounts are produced, together with some rubber in the southern region. Both phenomena greatly increase the possibility of chance resemblances, especially when they are not confirmed by lexical similarities. Ross has proposed 23 Papuan language families and 9–13 isolates. - Yu whosait?My name is (Joe) - Nem bilong mi (Joe)Thank you very much - tenk yu tru(e)No thank you - sori nogutHow are you? 851 indigenous languages are spoken in the country. As of 2020, the following families are identified:[19]. [2] Since perhaps only a quarter of Papuan languages have been studied in detail, linguists' understanding of the relationships between them will continue to be revised. [22], Tonal Papuan languages include the Sko, Lepki, Kaure, Kembra, Lakes Plain, and Keuw languages. See language lists, maps, statistics, and more. Despite only having four official languages, Papua New Guinea has an astonishing 832 native languages spoken within its borders. However, Ross argues that Papuan languages have closed-class pronoun systems, which are resistant to borrowing, and in any case that the massive number of languages with similar pronouns in a family like Trans–New Guinea preclude borrowing as an explanation. Besides the Austronesian languages, there are some 800 languages divided into perhaps sixty small language families, with unclear relationships to each other or to any other languages, plus many language isolates. Although pronouns are conservative elements in a language, they are both short and utilise a reduced set of the language's phonemic inventory. One fifth of all the world's languages are to be Foley summarized the state of the literature. It was once a British colony, but became independent n 1975. Papua New Guinea has over 850 languages, which makes it the most linguistically diverse country on Earth. Sort out the facts about islands across the globe. The coherence of the South Bird's Head, East Bird's Head, Pauwasi, Kwomtari, and Central Solomons families are uncertain, and hence are marked below as "tentative. Greenberg also suggested a connection to the Tasmanian languages. The great majority of the country’s population lives in rural areas. English is mainly spoken by migrants and expatriates working in the country. Common Phrases What is your name? READ PAPER. Nonetheless, Ross believes that he has been able to validate much of Wurm's classification, albeit with revisions to correct for Wurm's partially typological approach. In addition, poorly attested Karami remains unclassified. Note that while this classification may be more reliable than past attempts, it is based on a single parameter, pronouns, and therefore must remain tentative. These include Western Dani (180,000 in 1993) and Ekari (100,000 reported 1985) in the western (Indonesian) highlands, and Enga (230,000 in 2000), Huli (150,000 reported 2011), and Melpa (130,000 reported 1991) in the eastern (PNG) highlands. (2013)[11] found lexical similarities among the following language groups. However, because of his more stringent criteria, he was not able to find enough data to classify all Papuan languages, especially many isolates that have no close relatives to aid in their classification. Tok is spoken by roughly 12.5% of the country as a fluent language, but up to 5 million people (62.5%) use the language … Extinct Tambora and the East Papuan languages have not been addressed, except to identify Yele as an Austronesian language. Forestry was a controversial industry, with logging companies developing connections with the political elite, and it was marked by corrupt practices including improperly issued licenses, mislabeled species, transfer pricing manipulation (the practice of hiding the real value of transactions—e.g., by undervaluing exports—in order to maximize profits), tax avoidance, environmental damage, and lack of reforestation. The Highlands valleys are densely settled, whether in villages or scattered hamlets. More than two-fifths of the population is Protestant; Lutherans make up the largest portion of those, and there are some Anglicans and a growing number of Pentecostals. Four languages are officially recognized in the constitution. This was the scheme used by Ethnologue prior to Ross's classification (below). These were formerly also the staple foods for Highlanders, who now mostly rely on sweet potatoes known as kau kau. The island of Karkar and the Gazelle Peninsula of New Britain are centres of particularly dense population. Papuan speakers, who constitute the great majority of the population, live mainly in the interior. That is, he looked at shared vocabulary, and especially shared idiosyncrasies analogous to English I and me vs. German ich and mich. "[13][14][15][16], Papuan independent language families (43 families), Papuan isolates and unclassified languages (37 total), Glottolog 4.0 (2019), based partly on Usher, recognizes 70 independent families and 55 isolates. It has been suggested that the families that appear when comparing pronouns may be due to pronoun borrowing rather than to genealogical relatedness. The southern New Guinea plains are only sparsely populated by relatively mobile sago gatherers. - em hamas? Despite the apparent inroads made by introduced religions, much of the population also maintains traditional religious beliefs, and rituals of magic, spells, and sorcery are still widely practiced. Several languages of Flores, Sumba, and other islands of eastern Indonesia are classified as Austronesian but have large numbers of non-Austronesian words in their basic vocabulary and non-Austronesian grammatical features. Most of the government communications and publications are often made in English. New Guinea is the most linguistically diverse region in the world. Very few linguists accept his grouping. Despite the greatly diminished importance of plantations and the relocation of most of the airstrips out of the towns, those origins helped determine the existing urban layout. While Pawley & Hammarström's internal classification of Trans-New Guinea largely resembles a composite of Usher's and Ross' classifications, Palmer et al. The small urban population lives for the most part in towns whose original location was determined either by access to a good harbour for early colonial planters or, in the interior, by the availability of level land sufficient for an airstrip. Papuan languages speaking countries Papuan languages is no official language in any country, but is spoken as mother tongue in 2 countries by a minor part of the population. English is taught in many schools and is spoken mostly by the educated, as well as being used in bureaucratic processes such as government, trade and commerce. The English language has e… Language-in-education policies in Papua New Guinea (PNG) are possibly the most interesting and best model for the world to follow. Papua New Guinea is known for its biodiversity, cultures, and languages. 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