With his excellent memory, Louis could then see who attended him at court and who was absent, facilitating the subsequent distribution of favours and positions. In 1682, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, followed the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the vast Mississippi basin in Louis' name, calling it Louisiane. The film starts the with the realization that the King Louis is very ill, and ends with his death. [31] The dowry was never paid and would later play a part persuading his maternal first cousin Charles II of Spain to leave his empire to Philip, Duke of Anjou (later Philip V of Spain), the grandson of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa. During the long reign of the young King, ruled until his death in 1774, France's power in Europe and overseas gradually decreased, while Britain gained more influence. Pre-revolutionary France was a patchwork of legal systems, with as many legal customs as there were provinces, and two co-existing legal traditions—customary law in the north and Roman civil law in the south. In addition, France also contested shorter wars, such as the War of Devolution and the War of the Reunions. Led into the royal bedchamber, they gazed upon Louis, who was feigning sleep, were appeased, and then quietly departed. Complaining of pain in his leg, the King of France continued … The gruesome death of Louis, le Grand Dauphin. On the morning of 1 September he died. In 1667, the net receipts had risen to 20 million pounds sterling, while expenditure had fallen to 11 million, leaving a surplus of 9 million pounds. Contemporary treaties were intentionally phrased ambiguously. To the maritime powers of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic, this would have been as undesirable as a Franco-Spanish union.[87]. Just as the first Fronde (the Fronde parlementaire of 1648–1649) ended, a second one (the Fronde des princes of 1650–1653) began. Louis also patronised the visual arts by funding and commissioning artists such as Charles Le Brun, Pierre Mignard, Antoine Coysevox, and Hyacinthe Rigaud, whose works became famous throughout Europe. The war began with French successes, but the talents of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough, and Eugene of Savoy checked these victories and broke the myth of French invincibility. Cities and territories, such as Luxembourg and Casale, were prized for their strategic positions on the frontier and access to important waterways. On the death of Mazarin, in March 1661, Louis assumed personal control of the reins of government and astonished his court by declaring that he would rule without a chief minister: "Up to this moment I have been pleased to entrust the government of my affairs to the late Cardinal. However, the burial of Louis XIII, the father of Louis XIV, broke with ancient traditions. [110], Louis died of gangrene at Versailles on 1 September 1715, four days before his 77th birthday, after 72 years on the throne. [44], France also attempted to participate actively in Jesuit missions to China. All of Louis' tears and his supplications to his mother did not make her change her mind. Composers and musicians such as Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, and François Couperin thrived. Louis XIV became friends with Villeroy's young children, particularly François de Villeroy, and divided his time between the Palais-Royal and the nearby Hotel de Villeroy. As supporting evidence, they cite the literature of the time, such as the social commentary in Montesquieu's Persian Letters. French military successes near the end of the war took place against the background of a changed political situation in Austria. [104] For Louis, ballet may not have merely been a tool for manipulation in his propaganda machinery. Louis' relationship with his mother was uncommonly affectionate for the time. Paris erupted in rioting as a result, and Anne was forced, under intense pressure, to free Broussel. The disasters of the war were so great that, in 1709, France came close to losing all the advantages gained over the preceding century. In 1910, the American historical novelist, Louis is a major character in the 1959 historical novel, A character based on Louis plays an important role in, The 15-year-old Louis XIV, as played by the Irish actor, Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, 1638–1715, Gabrielle Angelique, Duchess of La Valette and Epernon, This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 20:50. These historians also emphasise the effect of Louis' wars in expanding France's boundaries and creating more defensible frontiers that preserved France from invasion until the Revolution.[116]. by Veronica Buckley Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 498 pp., $35.00 At Versailles during the night of October 9, 1683, three months after the death of his wife, Maria Teresa of Spain, Louis XIV, King of France and Navarre, married Mme de Maintenon, the former governess of his children by his recently discarded mistress, the marquise de Montespan. Discover more on this Foundation. In 2015, 77 years later a few towns marked the 300th anniversary of the monarch’s death, for instance: Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Maisons … The next January, Louis was convicted and condemned to death by a narrow majority. Reform proved difficult because the taille was levied by officers of the Crown who had purchased their post at a high price: punishment of abuses necessarily lowered the value of the post. This led to the formation of the 1686 League of Augsburg by the Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Sweden, Saxony, and Bavaria. Another war was on the horizon and, with it, a reversal of European alliances…. without my command; to render account to me personally each day and to favor no one". The Death of Louis XIV Film poster FrenchLa Mort de Louis XIV Directed byAlbert Serra Produced byThierry Lounas Written byAlbert Serra Thierry Lounas StarringJean-Pierre Léaud Music byMarc Verdaguer CinematographyJonathan Ricquebourg Edited byAriadna Ribas Artur Tort Albert Serra Production company Capricci Films Rosa Filmes Bobi Lux Andergraun Films Distributed byCapricci Films Release date 19 May 2016 2 November 2016 Running time 115 minutes CountryFrance Portugal Spain … However, Louis altered the sentence to life-imprisonment and abolished Fouquet's post. [14], All this led her to advocate a forceful policy in all matters relating to the King's authority, in a manner that was much more radical than the one proposed by Mazarin. [27] The Grande Ordonnance de Procédure Civile of 1667, also known as the Code Louis, was a comprehensive legal code attempting a uniform regulation of civil procedure throughout legally irregular France. This aristocratic coalition was strong enough to liberate the princes, exile Mazarin, and impose a condition of virtual house arrest on Queen Anne. The threat to the royal family prompted Anne to flee Paris with the king and his courtiers. Philippe II governed from his residence in the Palais-Royal and moved the young king into the Tuileries. The Spanish marriage would be very important both for its role in ending the war between France and Spain, because many of the claims and objectives of Louis' foreign policy for the next 50 years would be based upon this marriage, and because it was through this marriage that the Spanish throne would ultimately be delivered to the House of Bourbon (which holds it to this day). He judged that royal authority thrived more surely by filling high executive and administrative positions with these men because they could be more easily dismissed than nobles of ancient lineage, with entrenched influence. In 1714, after losing Landau and Freiburg, the Holy Roman Emperor also made peace with France in the Treaties of Rastatt and Baden. He was devoted to the soldiers' material well-being and morale, and even tried to direct campaigns. According to Philippe de Dangeau's Journal, Louis on his deathbed advised his heir with these words: Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity. In their analysis, his early reforms centralised France and marked the birth of the modern French state. He emphasised that, should it come to war, William III was unlikely to stand by France since he "made a treaty to avoid war and did not intend to go to war to implement the treaty". Louis XIV's only surviving legitimate grandson, Philip V, was not included in the line of succession due to having renounced the French throne after the war of the Spanish succession, which lasted for 13 years after the death of Charles II of Spain in 1700.[115]. The king took longer than expected to die. Pale and in obvious distress, she was put to bed, but her pains were so severe that she believed she must have been poisoned and asked for an antidote. It was Louis XIV’s habit to leave Versailles at times and retreat to Marly-le-Roi, where he had built a, compared to Versailles, small château. The sheer number of performances he gave as well as the diversity of roles he played may serve to indicate a deeper understanding and interest in the art form. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects. Depending on one's views of the war's inevitability, Louis acted reasonably or arrogantly. He stripped Maine and his brother, Louis-Alexandre, Count of Toulouse, of the rank of Prince of the Blood, which Louis had granted them, and significantly reduced Maine's power and privileges. Louis XIV's France was emblematic of the age of absolutism in Europe. On 5 April 1693, Louis also founded the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis (French: Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Louis), a military order of chivalry. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the longest recorded of any monarch of a sovereign country in European history. These actions enraged Britain and the Dutch Republic. In contrast, no renunciations tainted the claims of the Emperor Leopold I's son Charles, Archduke of Austria, who was a grandson of Philip III's youngest daughter Maria Anna. Versailles, August 1715. "Sun King" and "Le Roi Soleil" redirect here. But the pain was always in the same place, and shortly afterwards black marks appeared, indicating senile gangrene. An additional factor in Louis' thinking was the prevailing contemporary European principle to assure socio-political stability, cuius regio, eius religio ("whose realm, his religion"), the idea that the religion of the ruler should be the religion of the realm (as originally confirmed in central Europe in the Peace of Augsburg of 1555).[56]. The Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the League of Augsburg and disbanded the Grand Alliance. Louis generously supported the royal court of France and those who worked under him. Tapestries could be allegorical, depicting the elements or seasons, or realist, portraying royal residences or historical events. He recommended that France fight back by licensing French merchants ships to privateer and seize enemy merchant ships, while avoiding its navies: Vauban was pessimistic about France's so-called friends and allies: Louis decided to persecute Protestants and revoke the 1598 Edict of Nantes, which awarded Huguenots political and religious freedom. The duo allowed the Palatinate and Austria to occupy Bavaria after their victory at the Battle of Blenheim. His body was laid to rest in Saint-Denis Basilica outside Paris. The doctors were powerless. By manipulating their rivalries and suspicions, Louis divided his enemies and broke their power. By the time of the Treaty of Ryswick, the Spanish succession had been a source of concern to European leaders for well over forty years. Louis pressed her claims to land and chattels, hoping the latter, at least, would be given to her. He had many ailments: for example, symptoms of diabetes, as confirmed in reports of suppurating periostitis in 1678, dental abscesses in 1696, along with recurring boils, fainting spells, gout, dizziness, hot flushes, and headaches. [59], Historians have debated Louis' reasons for issuing the Edict of Fontainebleau. He recommended him to lighten the burden on the people and avoid going to war as much as possible, declaring: “It is the ruin of the peoples.” Aware of his sins in this regard, the sovereign asked his grandson to remain “a peaceful prince”. If he could not achieve this within the year, the war would resume. [5] By 1695, France retained much of its dominance, but had lost control of the seas to England and Holland, and most countries, both Protestant and Catholic, were in alliance against it. The veteran monarch seemed unshakeable, to the great admiration of all the courtiers. The Death of Louis XIV. In 1669, Suleiman Aga led an Ottoman embassy to revive the old Franco-Ottoman alliance. In the case of Maria Theresa, nonetheless, the renunciation was considered null and void owing to Spain's breach of her marriage contract with Louis. Louis XIV, also popularly known as the Sun King (5 September 1638–1 September 1715) was the King of France and King of Navarre from 14 May 1643 until his death. [108], Besides the official depiction and image of Louis, his subjects also followed a non-official discourse consisting mainly of clandestine publications, popular songs, and rumors that provided an alternative interpretation of Louis and his government. Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria, had to flee to the Spanish Netherlands. His work was adopted and published by Feuillet in 1700. Although it sanctioned slavery, it attempted to humanise the practice by prohibiting the separation of families. King Charles II ruled a vast empire comprising Spain, Naples, Sicily, Milan, the Spanish Netherlands, and numerous Spanish colonies. Gian Lorenzo Bernini was originally to plan additions to the Louvre; however, his plans would have meant the destruction of much of the existing structure, replacing it with an Italian summer villa in the centre of Paris. The principle of cuius regio, eius religio generally had also meant that subjects who refused to convert could emigrate, but Louis banned emigration and effectively insisted that all Protestants must be converted. ‘The Death of Louis XIV’ (2016) (still courtesy Capricci) Albert Serra bothers critics. Only the "unprivileged" classes paid direct taxes, and this term came to mean the peasants only, since many bourgeois, in one way or another, obtained exemptions. Only four days later he would have turned 77 years old. But his actions were certainly not read as disinterested. Watch later. [89] The king was, at first, put off by her strict religious practice, but he warmed to her through her care for his children. Beaufort, who had escaped from the prison where Anne had incarcerated him five years before, was the military leader in Paris, under the nominal control of Conti. Only four days later he would have turned 77 years old. Other scholars counter that there was little reason to reform institutions that largely worked well under Louis. Anne and Mazarin had largely pursued the policies of Cardinal Richelieu, augmenting the Crown's power at the expense of the nobility and the Parlements. Thus, his generosity to Spain with regard to Catalonia has been read as a concession to foster pro-French sentiment and may ultimately have induced King Charles II to name Louis's grandson Philip, Duke of Anjou, heir to the Spanish throne. [4] An adherent of the concept of the divine right of kings, Louis continued his predecessors' work of creating a centralised state governed from the capital. In the end, however, despite renewed tensions with the Camisards of south-central France at the end of his reign, Louis may have helped ensure that his successor would experience fewer instances of the religion-based disturbances that had plagued his forebears. Louis began his personal reign with administrative and fiscal reforms. Birthplace: Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France Location of death: Versailles, France Cause of death: unspecified Rema. [95] Louis established the Paris Foreign Missions Society, but his informal alliance with the Ottoman Empire was criticised for undermining Christendom.[96]. Reforms introduced by Louvois, the Secretary of War, helped maintain large field armies that could be mobilised much quicker, allowing them to mount offensives in early spring before their opponents were ready. He also used tapestries as a medium of exalting the monarchy. Witnessing numerous desertions and defections, even among those closest to him, James II fled England. The Allies suffered a Pyrrhic victory at the Battle of Malplaquet with 21,000 casualties, twice that of the French. Protestant lords called on the Dutch Prince William III of Orange, grandson of Charles I of England, to come to their aid. In the last years of his reign, Louis XIV had to witness the demise of a lot of his family members. In the 16th and 17th centuries, women wore mourning white, but by the 18th century black was firmly established as the colour of mourning. [101], Rigaud's portrait exemplified the height of royal portraiture during Louis' reign. Louis played an Egyptian in Le Mariage forcé in 1664, a Moorish gentleman in Le Sicilien in 1667, and both Neptune and Apollo in Les Amants magnifiques in 1670. France, however, profited most from the settlement. The Cardinal depended totally on Anne's support and had to use all his influence on the Queen to avoid nullifying, but to restrain some of her radical actions. The French claim derived from Louis XIV's mother Anne of Austria (the older sister of Philip IV of Spain) and his wife Maria Theresa (Philip IV's eldest daughter). Acceptance of the will of Charles II and consequences, See also Louis' commissioned academy of dance, discussed in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFAnselme1726 (, Louis had no children; he died aged 10 in 1795. It follows the Bourbon, Kings of France, and the Counts of Paris and Worms. Additionally, in the colonies, only Roman Catholics could own slaves, and these had to be baptised. [114], Line of succession to the French throne upon the death of Louis XIV in 1715. The threat of an escalation and a secret treaty to divide Spanish possessions with Emperor Leopold, the other major claimant to the throne of Spain, led Louis to relinquish many of his gains in the 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. It is considered that, at all times, he provided his roles with sufficient majesty and drew the limelight with his flair for dancing. Before its dissolution eight months later, the Assembly had accepted the Declaration of the Clergy of France, which increased royal authority at the expense of papal power. The taille was reduced at first; financial officials were forced to keep regular accounts, auctioning certain taxes instead of selling them privately to a favored few, revising inventories and removing unauthorized exemptions (for example, in 1661 only 10 per cent from the royal domain reached the King). On September 1, 1715, a few days before what would have been his 77th birthday, Louis XIV died of gangrene in Versailles, France. The gangrene worsened, and on the 26th it had spread to his bone. After a few battles, a political compromise was reached; the Peace of Rueil was signed, and the court returned to Paris. Parliament declared the throne vacant, and offered it to James's daughter Mary II and his son-in-law and nephew William. He also attracted, supported and patronized such artists as André Charles Boulle, who revolutionised marquetry with his art of inlay, today known as "Boulle Work". Henriette, Duchesse d’Orléans, the sister-in-law of Louis XIV, took a drink of her usual chicory water and immediately clutched her side, crying out in pain. Louis and Colbert also had wide-ranging plans to bolster French commerce and trade. Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638 – September 1, 1715) ruled as King of France and of Navarre from May 14 1643 until his death just prior to his seventy-seventh birthday. 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