There is a pleasant game in these days of enforced isolation against the spread of the coronavirus. Mary's marriage to a leading Catholic, precipitated Mary's half-brother, the Earl of Moray, to join with other Protestant Lords in open rebellion. The policy of the Bourbon dynasty resumed the tradition of Francis I, and under the later guidance of Cardinal Richelieu the potential authority of the monarchy was realized. Although a Roman Catholic, she was prepared to deal favourably with the Huguenot House of Bourbon. aharriman_59962. In 1572, rising tensions between local Catholics and Protestant forces attending the wedding of the Protestant Henri of Navarre, and the King's sister, Marguerite de Valois, culminated in the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre. I. Hapsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559) A. Open war was avoided by means of a peace agreement (Erster Landfriede), that was not exactly favourable to the Catholic side, who had to dissolve its alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs. The conflict took place mostly in southern, western and central areas of modern Germany but also affected areas in neighboring modern Switzerland and Austria. Further hostilities—the Seventh War (1579–1580)—ended in the stalemate of the Treaty of Fleix. 1555. King Charles I decided to send an expeditionary force to relieve the French Huguenots whom Royal French forces held besieged in La Rochelle. The population of the Czech lands declined by a third. The situation degenerated into the Eighth War (1585–1589). 1555 . Engraved by Franss Hogenberg, a Dutch engraver and artist of the 16th century. It was foiled when their plans were discovered. The political conflicts thus engendered within the Empire led almost inevitably to war. Charles soon needed to raise more money to suppress this Irish Rebellion. Wars of Religion: 1559-1648. On one side was a militant Calvinist minority that wanted to continue fighting the Catholic King Philip II, and convert all Dutch citizens to Calvinism. AP European History: Unit 2.2 HistorySage.com Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 I. Hapsburg -Valois Wars (c. 1519 -1559) A. [7] The following year Fitzgerald was blasted into submission, and in August he was induced to surrender. The Protestant army laid siege to several cities in the Poitou and Saintonge regions (to protect La Rochelle), and then Angoulême and Cognac. In Germany the territorial formula of cuius regio, eius religio applied—that is, in each petty state the population had to conform to the religion of the ruler. European Wars of Religion Bibliography What A Bloody Fun Time Catholics Rule! Watch: AP European History - French Wars of Religion. Christendom-Wikipedia. In the case of the southern provinces, he speaks of a relatively small, orderly group moving along the country. Huge damage was done to monasteries, churches and other religious institutions. After her army's defeat at the Battle of Langside on May 13, she fled to England, where she was imprisoned by Queen Elizabeth. Learn from European Wars Of Religion experts like Frederick Marryat and Stuart Reid. The war ended with the Treaty of Münster, a part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. In the territory of Brandenburg, the losses had amounted to half, while in some areas an estimated two thirds of the population died. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A co-ordinated Protestant attempt was made to take over the Netherlands from four different directions, with armies led by William's brothers invading from Germany and French Huguenots invading from the south. convert to Catholicism. At the church of St John the Baptist, Knox preached a fiery sermon which provoked an iconoclastic riot. Trouver des images haute résolution de qualité dans la banque d'images Getty Images. A SmartBoard Notebook file that contains a simple question sequence assignment on the French and European Wars of Religion. Support from England finally arrived and by the end of March, a significant English army joined the Scottish Protestant forces. Free 2-day shipping. European Wars of Religion - France - The 1560s. Knox was declared an outlaw by the Queen Regent, Mary of Guise, but the Protestants went at once to Perth, a walled town that could be defended in case of a siege. He proceeded to Dundee where a large number of Protestant sympathisers and noblemen had gathered. Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty that ended the religious struggle between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire. Simultaneously Parliament offered concessions to the Scots in return for their aid and assistance. Her son James VI was raised as a Protestant, later becoming King of England as well as Scotland. This was a step which the princes who supported Luther were in no way willing to countenance. Uploaded by. Increasingly threatened by the armies of the English Parliament after Charles I's arrest in 1648, the Confederates signed a treaty of alliance with the English Royalists. On October 11, 1531, the Catholic cantons decisively defeated the forces of Zürich in the Battle of Kappel. Students will be required to know about the Huguenots, Philip II of Spain, the Plague and Witchcraft. The Swedish armies alone destroyed 2,000 castles, 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns in Germany, one-third of all German towns. Mary escaped from Loch Leven the following year, and once again managed to raise a small army. But the interpretation of the European wars of religion still remains largely defined by national boundaries, tied to specific processes of … The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland ground on for another four years until 1653, when the last Irish Confederate and Royalist troops surrendered. The south, under Spanish rule, remained a Catholic stronghold; most of its Protestants fled to the north. a year ago by. Some areas of Europe had more than 30 percent of their population wiped out. This has resulted in an explosion of studies revisiting issues of religious change, confessional violence and holy war during the early modern period. The major impact of the Thirty Years' War, in which mercenary armies were extensively used, was the devastation of entire regions scavenged bare by the foraging armies. Catholicism was forcibly suppressed. Charles of Lorraine, Duke of Mayenne, then became the leader of the Catholic League. The French Wars of Religion would eventually result in the War of the Three Henrys with Henry of Navarre becoming King Henry IV and converting to Catholicism to maintain peace. Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars of the 16th century) 2. The moratorium kept peace in the German lands for over a decade. The Battle of White Mountain in Bohemia (1620)—one of the decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. Period: 1555. to . The Holy Roman Empire, encompassing present-day Germany and portions of neighbouring lands, was the single area most devastated by the Wars of Religion. After the defeat, the forces of Zürich regrouped and attempted to occupy the Zugerberg, and some of them camped on the Gubel hill near Menzingen. Charles was executed in 1649, and the monarchy was not restored until 1660. The wars concluded with the issuing of the Edict of Nantes by Henry IV of France, which granted a degree of religious toleration to Protestants. The conflict was to the advantage of the Catholics, and the Emperor was able to impose the Augsburg Interim, a compromise allowing slightly modified worship, and supposed to remain in force until the conclusion of a General Council of the Church. However the rebel campaign ended in failure as William ran out of money to pay his army and his allies were destroyed by Alba. 68% average accuracy. a year ago by. Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9781317032762, 1317032764. In its battle to maintain Catholic control of the Low Countries, Spain was severely hampered by the fact that it was also fighting a war against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean. The southern Netherlands remained Catholic and Spanish, but the Dutch provinces formed an independent Protestant federation in which republican and dynastic influences were nicely balanced. In December 1560, Francis II died and Catherine de' Medici became regent for her young son Charles IX. The Netherlands were split into an independent northern part, while the southern part remained under Spanish control. Played 257 times. His desire to perpetuate French weakness through civil war led him at one point to negotiate with the Huguenot leader, Henry of Navarre (afterward Henry IV of France). However both kings firmly repressed attempts to spread Lutheran ideas within France. In Uncategorized. Due to the almost uninterrupted rule of the Calvinist-dominated separatists, most of the population of the northern provinces became converted to Protestantism over the next decades. The Renaissance had brought rapid economic and population growth which stressed traditional societal structures. Alba was replaced in 1573 by Luis de Requesens and a new policy of moderation was attempted. Even so, by 1570 the Spanish had mostly suppressed the rebellion throughout the Netherlands. On January 6, 1579, upset by Calvinist outrages in Oudenarde, Kortrijk, Bruges and Ieper, and the continued aggressive Calvinism of the Northern States, some of the Southern States signed the Union of Arras (Atrecht), declaring their loyalty to the Spanish king. In the Netherlands the wise Burgundian policies of Charles V were largely abandoned by Philip II and his lieutenants. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The largest of the religious wars was the Thirty Years War (1618–1648), a multifaceted, dynamically shifting, European-wide war that brought the many strands of inter-state conflict together. In the Low Countries, English, French, and German armies intervened; and at sea Dutch, Huguenot, and English corsairs fought the Battle of the Atlantic against the Spanish champion of the Counter-Reformation. The reformation continued to be imposed on an often unwilling population with the aid of stern laws that made it treason, punishable by death, to oppose the King's actions with respect to religion. In July 1589, in the royal camp at Saint-Cloud, a monk named Jacques Clément gained an audience with the King and drove a long knife into his spleen. Earthly Life . Flag of the Catholic League. The city prepared to fight to the death rather than accept a Calvinist king. Failure to comply would result in prosecution by the Imperial Court. On 1 July, Knox preached from the pulpit of St Giles', the most influential in the capital.[8]. The victors confiscated almost all Irish Catholic-owned land in the wake of the conquest and distributed it to the Parliament's creditors, to the Parliamentary soldiers who served in Ireland, and to English people who had settled there before the war. France, although always ruled by a Catholic monarch, had played a major part in supporting the Protestants in Germany and the Netherlands against their dynastic rivals, the Habsburgs. The treaty was between Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, and the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Lutheran princes. The Reformation in Scotland began in conflict. In 1656, tensions between Protestants and Catholics re-emerged and led to the outbreak of the First War of Villmergen. Dutch Calvinists resented the Catholic religion and their conflicts with the religion, as well as Spanish King Philip II's deep devoutness and close-mindedness toward other religions.The high nobility pleaded with him for more tolerance but some of them … Following the restoration of Catholicism under Queen Mary I of England in 1553, there was a brief unsuccessful Protestant rising in the south-east of England. European Wars Of Religion; French Monarchy; Early Modern Period; Catholic Church; Kingdom Of France; Documents Similar To FrenchWarsofReligion. History. In 1645 Parliament passed the Self-denying Ordinance, by which all members of either House of Parliament laid down their commands, allowing the re-organization of its main forces into the New Model Army. The situation on the ground in 1589 was that King Henry IV of France, as Navarre had become, held the south and west, and the Catholic League the north and east. See also: The Renaissance, powerpoints, the … Although peace agreements were reached, the conflict restarted in 1572 following the Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Here a group of prominent citizens, including Bernhard Rothmann, the Lutheran pastor, Jan Matthys, and Jan Bockelson (John of Leiden) had little difficulty in obtaining possession of the town on January 5, 1534. It consisted of a series of economic as well as religious revolts by peasants, townsfolk and nobles. [4] After the Duke was killed in action, he was succeeded by the Count of Mansfeld and the Dutch William of Orange and his brothers Louis and Henry. Some members of the League fought on, but enough Catholics were won over by the King's conversion to increasingly isolate the diehards. By the end of the 16th century the Rhine lands and those of southern Germany remained largely Catholic, while Lutherans predominated in the north, and Calvinists dominated in west-central Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands. Religion, Wars of, 1562–98, series of civil wars in France, also known as the Huguenot Wars. Historians have estimated[citation needed] that up to 30% of Ireland's population either died or had gone into exile by the end of the wars. Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. In France, the Edict of Nantes in 1598 embraced the provisions of previous treaties and accorded the Protestant Huguenots toleration within the state, together with the political and military means of defending the privileges that they had exacted. These wars had been political in nature (and thus not religious) since both France and the Holy Roman European Wars of Religion Timeline created by Michelle Moua. European History - Wars of Religion; 1562-1598 Free Presentations in PowerPoint format. The next major armed resistance took place in the Prayer Book Rebellion of 1549, which was an unsuccessful rising in western England against the enforced substitution of Cranmer's English language service for the Latin Catholic Mass. In 1566, a league of about 400 members of the high nobility, themselves disgruntled at Spanish rule, presented a petition to the governor Margaret of Parma, to suspend punitive actions against the Calvinists. European Wars of Religion will be a journey into the excitement, division, chaos, and horror of religious reform and civil violence during the Wars of Religion in early modern Europe. France. Church property was seized and Catholic worship was forbidden in most lands which adopted the Lutheran Reformation. Start a live quiz . In 1576, the King signed the Edict of Beaulieu, granting minor concessions to the Calvinists, but a brief Sixth Civil War took place in 1577. League presses began printing anti-royalist tracts under a variety of pseudonyms, while the Sorbonne proclaimed that it was just and necessary to depose Henri III. Contemporary Math Preview . However, with Protestant reinforcements arriving from neighbouring counties, the queen regent retreated to Dunbar. With the state-ordered break with the Pope in Rome, the Church in England, Wales and Ireland was placed under the rule of the King and Parliament. Edit. The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts that took place in France between the years of 1562 and 1598. War of Roses. Frank Hobbs. wars of the 16th century) 2. Finally, his ambition to make England and France the satellites of Spain weakened his ability to suppress Protestantism in both countries. Home › Encyclopedia › Topics › European humanism › the Europe of wars of religion › A Prelude to the Wars of Religion: The Sack of Rome (1527) The Sack of Rome in May 1527 by the troops of Emperor Charles V—king of Germany, Spain, Naples, and Sicily, and ruler of the Netherlands—was an event of rare violence that left a deep impression during the sixteenth century. The European Wars of Religion: An Interdisciplinary Reassessment of Sources, Interpretations, and Myths But even before their arrival, the mob had already sacked the churches and the friaries. 1524 to 1648, following the onset of the Protestant Reformation in Western and Northern Europe. The Huguenot army was under the command of Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé and aided by forces from south-eastern France and a contingent of Protestant militias from Germany—including 14,000 mercenary reiters led by the Calvinist Duke of Zweibrücken. In recent years religion has resurfaced amongst academics, in many ways replacing class as the key to understanding Europe's historical development. The revolt of the Holy League against the prospect of a Protestant king in the person of Henry of Navarre released new forces among the Catholic lower classes, which the aristocratic leadership was unable to control. Spanish Religious Wars (Dutch Revolt). The European religious wars were brutal, with the combined death toll ranging from 5.5 million to 18.5 million. There were occasions when the Wars of Religion assumed the guise of a supranational conflict between Reformation and Counter-Reformation. In History. People who have sinned must confess and repent. Ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars of the 16 th century) 2. Mary of Guise gathered those nobles loyal to her and a small French army. Although sometimes unconnected, all of these wars were strongly influenced by the religious change of the period, and the conflict and rivalry that it produced. In History. The European Wars of Religion were a series of religious wars waged in Europe from ca. However, in September 1589, Henry inflicted a severe defeat on the Duke at the Battle of Arques. Ferdinand, having been educated by the Jesuits, was a staunch Catholic. In a pattern soon to become familiar in the Netherlands and Scotland, underground Calvinist preaching, and the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. In a pattern soon to become familiar in the Netherlands and Scotland, underground Calvinist preaching, and the formation of covert alliances with members of the nobility quickly led to more direct action to gain political and religious control. Get this from a library! While the wars of religion often began as conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, there were political, economic, civil, and national reasons behind the wars as well. 1555. The Reformation came to Britain and Ireland with King Henry VIII of England's breach with the Catholic Church in 1533. This the king refused, and deteriorating relations led to the out break of war in 1642. The Duke of Guise had been highly popular in France, and the league declared open war against King Henry. The first major instances of systematic Protestant destruction of images and statues in Catholic churches occurred in Rouen and La Rochelle in 1560. In February 1563, at Orléans, Francis, Duke of Guise was assassinated, and Catherine's fears that the war might drag on led her to mediate a truce and the Edict of Amboise (1563), which again provided for a controlled religious toleration of Protestant worship. The sack of Magdeburg in 1631. Because of their revolutionary political ideas, radical reformers like Thomas Müntzer were compelled to leave the Lutheran cities of North Germany in the early 1520s. On the other was a minority of Catholics that wanted to remain loyal to the Landholder (Dutch: landvoogd) and the Spanish-backed government below him. Lutheranism, from its inception at Wittenberg in 1519, found a ready reception in Germany, as well as in formerly Hussite Bohemia. Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis, 1559 1. Following aggressive Calvinist preaching in and around the rich merchant cities of the southern Netherlands, organized anti-catholic religious protests grew in violence and frequency. Watch: AP European History - French Wars of Religion. This, however, was no easy task. The political temperature of the surrounding lands was rising, as religious unrest grew in the Netherlands. attack Spain. The spread of French Calvinism persuaded the French ruler Catherine de Médicis to show more tolerance for the Huguenots, which angered the powerful Roman Catholic Guise family. A Scottish rebellion, known as the Bishops War soon followed, leading to the defeat of a weak royalist counter-force in 1640. The Roman Catholic religion was restored in much of this area. European Wars of Religion Timeline created by madisonplacencia. Instructor-paced BETA . After numerous minor incidents and provocations from both sides, a Catholic priest was executed in the Thurgau in May 1528, and the Protestant pastor J. Keyser was burned at the stake in Schwyz in 1529. The Empire was a fragmented collection of semi-independent states with an elected Holy Roman Emperor as its head; after the 14th century, this position was usually held by a Habsburg. The Bourbons, with English support, and led by Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, and Admiral Coligny began to seize and garrison strategic towns along the Loire. The Battle of Rheindalen near Roermond occurred on 23 April 1568 and was won by the Spanish, but the Battle of Heiligerlee, fought on 23 May 1568, resulted in a victory for the rebel army. England, Scotland and Ireland, in personal union under the Stuart king, James I & VI, continued Elizabeth I's policy of providing military support to European Protestants in the Netherlands and France. Martin Luther rejected the demands of the insurgents and upheld the right of Germany's rulers to suppress the uprisings. TSTC Publishing. In Germany the territorial formula of cuius regio, eius religio applied—that is, in each petty state the population had to conform to the religion of the ruler. This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.The original content was at Category:European wars of religion.The list of authors can be seen in the page history.As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License. Most of the important cities in the provinces of Holland and Zeeland immediately declared loyalty to the rebels. Military intervention by external powers such as Denmark and Sweden on the Protestant side increased the duration of the war and the extent of its devastation. Religious tensions also broke into violence in the German free city of Donauwörth in 1606 when the Lutheran majority barred the Catholic residents from holding a procession, provoking a riot. The German Peasants' War of 1524/1525 was a popular revolt inspired by the teachings of the radical reformers. The last straw was the installation of a Catholic reeve at Baden, and Zürich declared war on 8 June, occupied the Thurgau and the territories of the Abbey of St. Gall and marched to Kappel at the border to Zug. Moray and the rebellious lords were routed and fled into exile, the decisive military action becoming known as the Chaseabout Raid. Read European Wars Of Religion books like The Children of the New Forest and Auldearn 1645 with a free trial Fought after the Protestant Reformation began in 1517, the wars disrupted the religious and political order in the Catholic countries of Europe. The fortified harbour of La Rochelle in western France, became a Protestant stronghold that was fought over in two lengthy sieges. aharriman_59962. AP European History: Unit 2.2 HistorySage.com Wars of Religion: 1559-1648 I. Hapsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559) A. The Imperial power retreated to Austria and the Habsburg lands. In recent years religion has resurfaced amongst academics, in many ways replacing class as the key to understanding Europe's historical development. In October 1641, a major rebellion broke out in Ireland. Society struggled under the weight of growing commercial and agricultural capitalism as well as persisting medieval structures. However, the massacre has significance mainly as a symbol of the Irish perception of Cromwellian cruelty, as far more people died in the subsequent guerrilla and scorched-earth fighting in the country than at infamous massacres such as Drogheda and Wexford. Its partisans massacred a Huguenot congregation at Vassy (1562), causing an uprising in the provinces. Spaans (1999) argues that iconoclasm was actually organized by local elites for political reasons [2] In general, local authorities did not step in to rein in the vandalism. His policy of religious uniformity in the Netherlands alienated the most wealthy and prosperous part of his dominions. This treaty was part of the European scale Peace of Westphalia that also ended the Thirty Years' War. However Spain's inability to pay its mercenary armies led to numerous mutinies and in November 1576 troops sacked Antwerp at the cost of some 8,000 lives. 5. Oliver Cromwell's conduct in this battle proved decisive, and demonstrated his leadership potential. Matthys identified Münster as the "New Jerusalem", and preparations were made, not only to hold what had been gained, but to proceed from Münster toward the conquest of the world. This picture illustrates the devastation of the religious wars in the Dutch provinces. Medieval Catholic Belief. In: Benedict, Ph., and others (eds). Meanwhile, the solidly Catholic people of Paris, under the influence of the Committee of Sixteen were becoming dissatisfied with Henry III and his failure to defeat the Calvinists. The first pitched battle of the war, fought at Edgehill on 23 October 1642, proved inconclusive, and both the Royalists and Parliamentarians claimed it as a victory. Catherine and Charles decided this time to ally themselves with the House of Guise. The national and religious aspects of the foreign policy of Philip II of Spain were not always in accord. The Lutheran duke Maurice of Saxony assisted Charles V in the first Schmalkaldic War in 1547 in order to win the Saxon electoral dignity from his Protestant cousin, John Frederick; while the Catholic king Henry II of France supported the Lutheran cause in the second Schmalkaldic War in 1552 to secure French bases in Lorraine. htranx. The European wars of religion were a series of religious wars waged in Europe in the 16th, 17th and early 18th century. HELL. DEATH. Tradition and Change. 1555. The Empire also contained regional powers, such as Bavaria, the Electorate of Saxony, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Electorate of the Palatinate, the Landgraviate of Hesse, the Archbishopric of Trier and Württemberg. This has resulted in an explosion of studies revisiting issues of religious change, confessional violence and holy war during the early modern period. They involved fights between the Huguenots (French protestants) and the Roman Catholic ruling class. Mary claimed to favour religious toleration on the French model, however the Protestant establishment feared a reestablishment of Catholicism, and sought with English help to neutralise or depose Mary. In 1562, seven years after the Peace of Augsburg had established a truce in Germany on the basis of territorialism, France became the centre of religious wars which endured, with brief intermissions, for 36 years. Lots of people are posting their COVID-19 relevant images – and one day someone should make an attempt to inventory them. In between was the majority of historically Catholic citizens who had no particular allegiance, but shared a desire to restore Dutch privileges and to get rid of the Spanish mercenary armies. In Northern Germany, Luther adopted the stratagem of gaining the support of the local princes in his struggle to take over and re-establish the church along Lutheran lines. This is a list of conflicts in Europe ordered chronologically, including wars between European states, civil wars within European states, wars between a European state and a non-European state that took place within Europe, and global conflicts in which Europe was a theatre of war.. Learn from European Wars Of Religion experts like Frederick Marryat and Stuart Reid. Shortly after this episode, local resistance to the reforms emerged in England. Answer to: Was Spain involved in the European Wars of Religion? Issues of religious reform exacerbated conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility, as in the French wars of religion. The turning-point came in the late summer and early autumn of 1643, when the Earl of Essex's army forced the king to raise the siege of Gloucester and then brushed the Royalist army aside at the First Battle of Newbury on 20 September 1643. As the former Member of Parliament Admiral Robert Blake blockaded Prince Rupert's fleet in Kinsale, Oliver Cromwell could land at Dublin on 15 August 1649 with an army to quell the Royalist alliance in Ireland. The Huguenots tried to gain French government support for intervention against the Spanish forces arriving in the Netherlands. Contemporary estimates put the dead at 100,000. Spain retained a large military presence in the south, where it could also be used against France. $57.99; $57.99; Publisher Description. Mary set out for Stirling on 26 August 1565 to confront them. On 12 May 1588, a popular uprising raised barricades on the streets of Paris, and Henry III fled the city. The fragile compromise came to an end in 1584, when the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, François, Duke of Anjou, died. By 1617 Germany was bitterly divided, and it was clear that Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, would die without an heir. By now Calvinist mobs had overrun much of central Scotland, destroying monasteries and catholic churches as they went. For the final stage of the revolution, Maitland appealed to Scottish patriotism to fight French domination. Peace of Augsburg The peace of Augsburg was the German Princes having to decide between Lutheranism or Catholicism as their regions religion. Were defeated, and european wars of religion European Wars of Religion - Olivia Fowler Timeline created by.! To 1648, following the Bartholomew 's Day Massacre their territories September of that year war... 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Lutheran ideas within France towns in Germany, and resilience: did the Middle end! For a time provoked the combined death toll ranging from 5.5 million to 18.5 million this textbook ISBN... Cromwell 's conduct in this Battle proved decisive, and demonstrated his leadership potential southern provinces, named! Political in nature ( and thus not religious ) since both France the. 1519-1559 ) a of Spain, the decisive military action becoming known as the Chaseabout Raid the German '. A positive moral principle, and others ( eds ) the radical reformers 300,000 peasant insurgents forces of Zürich the. Became regent for her young son Charles IX at Meaux in 1567 a positive moral principle, and the was... Henri of Navarre again sought foreign aid from the Cologne war ( 1585–1589.! Mayenne, who was appointed Lieutenant-General of the insurgents and upheld the right of Germany 's to...